During each meiotic division, chromosome segregation is accomplished by a small acentriolar meiotic spindle that forms in the embryo anterior. An enzyme complex called telomerasepresent in large quantities in cancerous cells, rebuilds the telomeres through synthesis of telomeric DNA repeats, allowing division to continue indefinitely.
Being a universal eukaryotic property, mitosis probably arose at the base of the eukaryotic tree.
This shortening has been correlated to negative effects such as age related diseases and shortened lifespans in humans. Semiopen pleuromitosis is typical of most Apicomplexa. A timeline of other milestones in cell division research can be found here. Closed orthomitosis is found among diatomsciliatessome Microsporidiaunicellular yeasts and some multicellular fungi.
The red nodules are the centromeres. The daughter cells produced by mitosis are called diploid as they contain 46 chromosomes whilst the haploid cells produced by meiosis only have 23 chromosomes and are gametes.
Therefore, one of the daughter cells will be monosomic for that chromosome.